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I will focus on utf8 and utf8mb4, but if you choose to do otherwise, keep reading; most of this discussion can still be adapted to the charset of your choice.For collation, probably the best 'overall' collation is utf8mb4_unicode_520_ci.That is, there is no utf8 collation for case folding, but keeping accents distinct. The document is inconsistent as to which it specifies.If you are running My SQL before 5.5.3, you have only 'utf8'.BINARY/BLOB should be usually be used instead CHAR utf8; this stores the bytes without any checking.
connection Init Sql is used by Hikari CP when it open the connection. It handles essentially all languages simultaneously, but compromises on ordering.
If you need Emoji or Chinese, then you need 'utf8mb4'.
This is a summary of how things work, and what is likely to go wrong.
("UTF" = "Unicode Transformation Format") Meanwhile, My SQL is born, but has enough problems without worrying about character sets. You can put any kind of bytes, representing anything, into a VARCHAR. My SQL 4.1 introduced the concept of "character set" and "collation".
If you had legacy data or legacy code, you probably did not notice that you were messing things up when you upgraded.